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    Replacement Options for Penstocks

    Many wood stave penstocks installed in the last century are approaching the end of their safe, reliable, and useful service life. Once leakage surpasses the ability of typical maintenance to manage it, exterior deterioration of the wood staves, steel bands, and saddle foundations can accelerate. As deterioration progresses, continued maintenance may not be economically justifiable, and owners must choose either to replace or abandon a penstock. The most common replacement materials are steel, fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FRP), or concrete. The advantages and disadvantages of these three materials are presented through three recent penstock replacement projects where site conditions, station characteristics, penstock diameter, length, hydraulics, construction access, material shipping constraints, and cost all affected the choice of replacement material.

     

    This white paper is sponsored by Kleinschmidt.

    Sponsored by

    ITAIPU HPP: Energy Production with High Performance

    This article describes the journey of the ITAIPU Binacional Hydroelectric Power Plant in establishing a new world record in electrical energy production for two consecutive years in 2012 and 2013, with the generation of 98.29 and 98.63 million MWh, respectively. In addition to introducing the ITAIPU corporation and its principal performance indicators, questions such as the focus upon the customer, the vision of the Board of Directors, binational relations, the culture of high performance, strategy and method, execution of the strategy, results achieved and lessons learned throughout the biennium of 2012 and 2013, shall also be dealt with.  

    White Paper brought to you by Itaipu Biancional

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