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Project Profiles: Snapshots of North American Rehabilitation

To illustrate the scope of rehabilitation work occurring throughout North America, Hydro Review presents information about activity at 19 projects. The total value of this work is nearly $3.5 billion.

By Elizabeth A. Ingram

The 19 projects highlighted in this reportillustrate the type of rehabilitation work occurring at hydroelectric facilities throughout North America (See Table 1 on pg. 10). Projects of all sizes continue to be rehabilitated and modernized. The size of plants featured on the following pages ranges from 5.45 MW to 2,457.3 MW.

All types of owners are pursuing rehabilitation, including private utilities and government agencies. Of the plants featured here, 14 are publicly owned and five are privately owned.

Most of the projects undergoing rehabilitation in North America are in the 40- to 70-year-old age range. The average age of the projects featured in this article is 63 years.

Reasons for rehab

A primary objective for owners when rehabilitating hydro projects is to increase capacity or efficiency, or both. More than half of the projects featured on the following pages cite increases in efficiency and/or capacity. For instance, installation of new runners at the 2,457.3-MW Chief Joseph project will increase capacity by 40 MW when the work is completed in 2014. Alcoa Power Generating Inc. expects to increase capacity from each of the six units at its 122-MW Cheoah plant by 25 percent when the rehab is complete.

Owners also are investing in rehabilitation to improve their projects' environmental performance. For example, at the 227-MW John H. Kerr project on the Roanoke River in Virginia, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is replacing the six larger turbines with aerating units to increase downstream dissolved oxygen. And at 69-MW Box Canyon, Public Utility District No. 1 of Pend Oreille County is modifying the facility to allow for underwater discharge, with a goal of reducing total dissolved gas.

Other reasons given for pursuit of rehabilitation include extending the service life of a project, improving reliability, and upgrading excitation systems.

Projects completed

Rehabilitation work was completed on several projects in 2010, including New York Power Authority's (NYPA) Blenheim-Gilboa Pumped Storage Power Project. This facility, on Schohaire Creek, underwent a US$135 million Life Extension and Modernization program that included replacing the major generating equipment and rehabilitating and modernizing other systems. This work, completed in June 2010, increased capacity of each unit by 30 MW, bringing total capacity to 1,160 MW.

Another rehab completed in 2010 isBonneville Lock and Dam, Powerhouse 1. This facility, on the Columbia River in Oregon, underwent work in two phases. Phase I began in 1992 and included replacement of the transformers, breakers, and disconnect switches. Phase II began in 1994. All ten turbines and generators underwent rehabilitation, including a rewind with stator replacement and installation of minimum gap runners. All ten units were uprated, for a new total capacity of 531 MW. Formerly, the project, owned by the Corps, had a capacity of 518.6 MW. The work cost US$143 million.

Rehab work also was completed on AmerenUE's 226-MW Osage plant, on the Osage River in Missouri. Six of the eight units underwent a capacity upgrade. Work on two units was completed in 2002, two more were completed in spring 2008, and the final two were completed in April 2010. The wicket gates, bearings, coolers, and generators were rehabilitated at the same time as the turbine replacements. Four of the six units upgraded include turbines designed for efficiency improvements and for improved aeration capability to enhance dissolved oxygen (DO) in the lower river.

Finally, work was completed early on rehabilitation of the 59.2-MW Lake Chelan project. This facility, owned by Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County, is on the Chelan River in Washington. The three-year modernization program consisted of replacing the two turbines, generators, and related equipment. The rehab boosted capacity by 11.2 MW. Environmental benefits included using 50 gallons of oil for the new high-pressure governors, compared with 800 gallons for the old equipment, and installing water-lubricated turbine guide bearings. The total cost of this work was about $45 million.

Beauharnois
Owner: Hydro-Quebec
Location: Quebec, Canada
River: Saint-Lawrence
Capacity: 1,755 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1932
Description of Work: Rehabilitation is intended to extend the service life of Quebec's fifth largest power station. Work on the project began in 1994 and is scheduled to be complete in 2019. The work involves overhauling the 36 generating units, constructing new buildings and rehabilitating the existing buildings, and rehabilitating the 120-kilovolt transmission lines.
Value of Work: C$1.6 billion (US$1.3 billion)
Expected Completion Date: 2019
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Alstom Hydro Canada Inc.,Cegerco Inc., Dessau, Hydro-Mecanique Inc., SNC-Lavalin, Voith Hydro
For Further Details: "Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Beauharnois Generating Station," Hydro Review, Volume 16, No. 7, December 1997.

Beauharnois


Box Canyon
Owner: Public Utility District No. 1 of Pend Oreille County
Location: Washington
River: Pend Oreille
Capacity: 69 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1956
Description of Work: Upgrade/rehabilitation includes replacing the four vertical turbine runners and generator stators, rewinding the generators, and restoring the units to "like-new" condition. The first new turbine is scheduled to be installed in 2011. As a result of the turbine upgrades and generator rewinds, capacity of the project will increase by 21 MW. Additional modifications will allow for underwater discharge from the turbines to reduce total dissolved gas and to provide for remote automation capabilities in the future.
Associated upgrade work includes replacement of four generator step-up transformers and other upgrades to accommodate the new turbines and increased capacity.
Value of Work: US$82 million
Expected Completion Date: 2014
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Turbine Replacement: ABB Inc., American Governor Co., Applied Solutions LLC, Enerfin, Kingsbury, McCormick Painting, Phoenix Power Controls (now North American Phoenix Energy Services), Purcell Paintings & Coatings, Ripplinger Engineering Laboratories, VA Tech Hydro (now Andritz Hydro Corp.)
Generator Replacement: Applied Solutions LLC, Garco Construction, IRS Environmental, Prater Electric Inc., Ripplinger Engineering Laboratories, Sherman Rock & Concrete, Siemens Power Transmission & Distribution Inc., Woodard Construction

Box Canyon


Chief Joseph
Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Location: Washington
River: Columbia
Capacity: 2,457.3 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1958
Description of Work: Ten new runners, for Units 5 through 14, will be installed by 2014. This work and other improvements will boost efficiency and increase capacity by more than 40 MW. New excitation systems also are being installed at the project.
Value of Work: $120 million
Expected Completion Date: 2014
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: ABB Power Generation Inc., Alstom Hydro


Snapshot of Projects Undergoing Rehabilitation
Table 1: Snapshot of Projects Undergoing Rehabilitation*

Cheoah
Owner: Alcoa Power Generating Inc.
Location: North Carolina
River: Cheoah
Capacity: 122 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1919
Description of Work: Units 1 to 4 at Cheoah are identical, and key components are at a critical age, requiring major overhaul or replacement. The first phase of the modernization project includes the upgrade of two of the four Francis turbines and generators. In addition, Alcoa Power Generating will replace the auxiliaries (such as the governors and lubrication system), step-up transformers, and switchgear. Another two units will be upgraded during phase two of the modernization project. This rehab will increase capacity of the plant by 5.5 MW per unit, a 25 percent increase.
Site prep work began in October 2010, with transformers scheduled for delivery in the first quarter of 2011. The new substation and first two new units will be on line by March 2012, the third unit will be operating by October 2012, and the fourth unit is expected to be complete by April 2013.
Value of Work: $110 million
Expected Completion Date: April 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: ABB, Fluor Global Services, Southern States, Voith Hydro
For Further Details: Ingram, Elizabeth A., "Using Stimulus Funds to Advance Hydro Development," Hydro Review, Volume 29, No. 3, April 2010, pages 18-30.

 Cheoah


Folsom
Owner: Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of Interior
Location: California
River: American
Capacity: 198.72 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1955
Description of Work: Work is taking place under three packages. Under the first package, all three Francis turbine runners will be replaced, as will the coupling bolts and shear pins. As a result of this work, each unit will have a new rated output of 70.8 MW.
Under the second package, all three generators will be rewound and excitation equipment replaced. The contractor will furnish and install new armature windings, stator cores, and digital excitation systems; evaluate generators for mechanical limitations and perform modifications; remove, refurbish, and reinstall field poles; and remove and reinstall on-line generator performance monitoring system components.
Under the third package, two generator step-up transformers will be replaced.
Value of Work: $29.8 million
Expected Completion Date: June 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Andritz Hydro, Delta Star, Koontz Electric, Voith Hydro


Glen Canyon
Owner: Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior
Location: Arizona
River: Colorado
Capacity: 1,296 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1964
Description of Work: Work involves replacing eight 155,000-horsepower turbines, including a new stainless steel runner and wicket gates. This work is being done on one unit per year, beginning in January 2007. Four of the eight units are complete.
Value of Work: US$33.5 million
Expected Completion Date: Spring 2014
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Alstom Hydro US Inc.

Glen Canyon


Glen Ferris
Owner: Brookfield Renewable Power
Location: West Virginia
River: Kanawha
Capacity: 5.45 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1899
Description of Work: In 2010, Brookfield initiated a rehab that will restore full production at this facility. Work began in June 2010. The scope of the rehab includes restoring all eight Francis turbine units to their original capacity and converting them from two-phase to a three-phase configuration for compatibility with the power transmission grid. Other work includes installing a new access bridge; upgrading the cranes in the two powerhouses; and installing new step-up transformers, generator breakers, and controls.
Work on this rehab began in June 2010. Two of the units will be restored to service in 2011, with the remaining six units coming on line in 2012.
Value of Work: $25 million
Expected Completion Date: 2012
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: D.A. Collins, Danhill Construction, Hatch Engineering, Nitro Electric Co.


Holtwood
Owner: PPL Generation LLC
Location: Pennsylvania
River: Susquehanna
Capacity: 108 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1910
Description of Work: Ten main units are being rehabilitated (six completed) and two house units have been replaced. Work includes: installation of new turbine runners; mechanical overhauls; modification of the turbine "wetted" parts for efficiency im¬provements; generator cleaning, inspection, and testing; installation of inflatable flashboards; and ongoing building and dam concrete repairs.
Work completed includes: installation of new main transformers; modernization of plant electrical systems, including new switchgear; modernization of protection and control systems; replacement of governor hydraulic system; upgrade of service water systems; and bridge crane upgrades.
Expected Completion Date: 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: ABB Automation (Bailey), American Hydro, Bridgestone Industrial Products, Cianbro Corp., Eastern Gunite Co., GE Canada, Hydra-Power Systems Inc., Hydro Consulting and Maintenance Services, Inc., Kingsbury Inc., Kleinschmidt Associates, Magnetek, National Electric Coil, Obermeyer Systems Inc., Power Equipment Maintenance, Inc., Structural Maintenance Systems Inc., T.E.A.M. Services, Voith Hydro
For Further Details: Porse, N. Christian, "Taking Holtwood into the Next Century," Hydro Review, Volume 29, No. 4, June 2010, pages 8-20.

Holtwood


Jocassee
Owner: Duke Energy
Location: South Carolina
River: Keowee
Capacity: 660 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1973
Description of Work: Work involves upgrading the turbines in Units 1 and 2 to improve efficiency and increase capacity. The rehabilitation scope is predominantly limited to the mechanical overhaul of the turbine mechanism components that would normally be reworked when upgrading a turbine. When complete, this work will increase capacity of the facility by 50 MW, to 710 MW.
Expected Completion Date: May 2011
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Regional Utility Services, Voith Hydro

Jocassee


John H. Kerr
Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Location: Virginia
River: Roanoke
Capacity: 227 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1953
Description of Work: The facility showed signs of excessive wear on the generators, turbines, and peripheral equipment. This resulted in loss of efficiency, reduced unit reliability, and lost power output. Work involves replacing the six larger turbines with aerating units, refurbishing the smaller 12-MW seventh turbine, restacking and rewinding seven generators, and replacing generator step-up transformers and extensive balance of plant equipment.
The rehab is intended to improve overall reliability of the project, reduce operation and maintenance costs, reduce unscheduled repair costs, increase downstream dissolved oxygen, and provide additional hydropower capacity. When complete, this work will increase capacity by 64 MW.
Value of Work: $90 million
Expected Completion Date: April 2011
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: General Electric Company Hydro, Koontz Electric Co. Inc.


Kelsey Generating Station
Owner: Manitoba Hydro
Location: Manitoba, Canada
River: Nelson
Capacity: 224 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1961
Description of Work: All seven turbine-generators are undergoing a major rehabilitation and upgrade program, which began in 2006. The program involves installing new runners with higher output ratings and new embedded parts in water passageways, refurbishing unit intake gates, rewinding generator stators, rehabilitating and upgrading generator rotor field windings, and installing new static exciters, unit transformers, servomotors, self-lubricated wicket gate regulation system bushings, scroll case access hatches, and unit control and monitoring systems.
This work is expected to add 84 MW of capacity to the project.
Value of Work: C$295 million (US$292.2 million)
Expected Completion Date: 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: ABB Canada, Alstom Hydro Canada, Comstock Canada, Dynamic Machine, Enerfin, Hitachi Canadian Industries, Pauwels Canada, PCL Constructors Canada, Pine Falls Technical Services, Pritchard Engineering Co. Ltd.

Kelsey Generating Station


Ozark
Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Location: Arkansas
River: Arkansas
Capacity: 115 MW
Original On-Line Date: November 1972 (first unit), May 1974 (fifth unit)
Description of Work: Major rehabilitation is under way, consisting of replacing five inclined axis turbines; upgrading to digital governors; rehabilitating the water passages and embedded components; and upgrading and rehabilitating the powerhouse auxiliary features, including the powerhouse cranes, water treatment, and drainage systems.
Value of Work: US$93 million
Expected Completion Date: 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Advanced Automation Technologies Inc., VA Tech Hydro USA

Ozark


Rock Island
Owner: Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County
Location: Washington
River: Columbia
Capacity: 213 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1933
Description of Work: Modernization work will begin on a second Kaplan unit (installed in 1954) in April 2011. The work includes a new generator, turbine, wicket gates, high-pressure governor, exciter, and controls, as well as draft tube modifications. Turbine components have been designed with fish friendly features and have greaseless bearings. Several years of performance testing have identified about a 10 percent gain in efficiency compared with the old unit.
Major maintenance work is under way on the third of four Nagler units (installed in 1933). The work includes installing a new stator and environmental enhancements to turbine components, including greaseless bushings and water-lubricated bearings.
Modernization of the balance of plant electrical and mechanical systems and installation of new cranes has been completed.
Value of Work: US$200 million
Expected Completion Date: 2015
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: ABS Consulting, Andritz Hydro, Areva T&D, Brazil Quality Services, CE Power Solutions, Dix Corporation, DTA Consulting Engineers, Dunkin and Bush, Emagineered Solutions, Far West Iron Works, Gelco, H&H Engineering, Hyundai Heavy Industries, K&N Electric, Knight Construction, Konecranes, MRM Construction, MWH Global, NW Steel Fab, Okenite, Omega Morgan, Peer Technical, Pro-Cut, Technibus, Quality Resource Services, R.W. Beck, VanTran, Voith Hydro, WESCO, Western States

Rock Island


Snoqualmie Falls
Owner: Puget Sound Energy
Location: Washington
River: Snoqualmie
Capacity: 44.4 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1898
Description of Work: Plant 1 began operating in 1898 and Plant 2 in 1910. Puget Sound Energy suspended generation at Snoqualmie Falls in the spring of 2010 to launch a major redevelopment that involves upgrades to aging infrastructure in both plants.
New intakes will convey water to both powerhouses. Modifications to the Plant 2 tunnel and forebay include lowering the tunnel floor, installing a new concrete lining to help increase capacity, and widening the forebay at the downstream end to improve approach flow conditions to the gatehouse. A new Plant 2 gatehouse will be constructed. The two Plant 1 penstocks will be replaced with a single penstock with a complex bifurcation to supply water to all five units. A new penstock will be built for conveying water to a new Unit 1 in Plant 2.
The existing Plant 2 powerhouse superstructure, together with a large part of the substructure, is being removed to allow for replacement of Unit 1 and installation of three flow bypass valves. The 1905-vintage Unit 5 in Plant 1 will be replaced with a 6-MW horizontal Francis Unit. In Plant 2, a 12.5-MW vertical unit will replace the 1910-vintage horizontal Francis turbine in Unit 1. And the control systems will be upgraded and integrated into a distributed system.
When complete, this work will add 10 MW of capacity to the project.
Value of Work: $240 million
Expected Completion Date: 2013
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Barnard Construction, GeoEngineers, Kleinfelder, Klohn Crippen Berger
For Further Details: Dubreuil, Elizabeth A., and Roque Bamba, "Snoqualmie Falls Plant No. 2: Restoring a Renewable Resource," Hydro Review, Volume 29, No. 8, November 2010, pages 34-39.


Spring Creek
Owner: Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of Interior
Location: California
River: Spring Creek
Capacity: 180 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1964
Description of Work: The Unit 1 generator will be rewound, including replacement of the stator core and other components. The contract includes an option for the second unit at this two-unit facility.
Value of Work: US$6 million
Expected Completion Date:August 2011
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Andritz Hydro


St. Lawrence-Franklin D. Roosevelt Power Project
Owner: New York Power Authority
Location: New York
River: St. Lawrence
Capacity: 800 MW (net dependable)
Original On-Line Date: 1958
Description of Work: In 1998, the Life Extension and Modernization (LEM) program work began. The LEM includes replacement and/or renovation of the original major generating equipment in the powerhouse, with a scheduled completion date of 2013. St. Lawrence-FDR project personnel are responsible for most of the LEM work. As of December 2010, NYPA had completed work on 13 of the 16 turbine-generator units to undergo refurbishment.
Value of Work: US$281 million
Expected Completion Date: 2013
For Further Details: "Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on St. Lawrence-Franklin D. Roosevelt Power Project," Hydro Review, Volume 24, No. 2, April 2005.

St. Lawrence-Franklin D. Roosevelt Power Project


Wanapum
Owner: Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County
Location: Washington
River: Columbia
Capacity: 1,038 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1963
Description of Work: Turbines in all ten units are being replaced with advanced turbines. The new turbine has six smaller blades instead of the five on the existing Kaplan turbine. The new runner reduces the pressure-versus-time and velocity-versus-distance gradients while minimizing clearances between the runner and discharge ring and maximizing the volume of flow passage. The servomotor that moves the blades is located near the top of the turbine shaft instead of the hub. The new turbine has 32 wicket gates instead of 20, and every other gate is aligned with one of the 16 stay vanes. The new blade centerline is lower. The new turbine is expected to have an overall efficiency gain of about 3 percent and an overall capacity gain of 15 percent.
In addition, work recently began on installing ten new generators at Wanapum.
Value of Work: US$195 million (turbines), US$161 million (generators)
Expected Completion Date: 2013 (turbines), 2018 (generators)
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Alstom Hydro US, Devine Tarbell & Associates Inc.
For Further Details: "Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Wanapum and Priest Rapids," Hydro Review, Volume 25, No. 2, April 2006.


Webbers Falls
Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Location: Oklahoma
River: Arkansas
Capacity: 69 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1973
Description of Work: Rehabilitate all three turbines, rewind three generators, install new 13.8 kV breakers and buss, and repair miscellaneous mechanical and electrical items. Rehabilitate two bridge and two gantry cranes.
Manufacturing of the new runner for Unit 3 began in August 2010, and testing and acceptance was planned for completion in March 2011. When the rehab is complete, plant capacity is expected to increase by 8.5 percent.
Value of Work: $72.7 million
Expected Completion Date: June 2012
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Andritz Hydro Corp.


Wells
Owner: Douglas County Public Utility District
Location: Washington
River: Columbia
Capacity: 840 MW
Original On-Line Date: 1967
Description of Work: Rebuilding generators and refurbishing turbine parts in all ten units. The decision to begin rehabilitating the units originated from a February 2005 fault in Unit 1. Based on tests of Unit 1 and information indicating generator coils of the other nine units were approaching the end of their services lives, Douglas County Public Utility District concluded it would be necessary to rebuild all ten generators. Generators are being rewound with new copper coils, and steel cores are being restacked with new laminations.
Turbine components and water passages are being refurbished, replaced, or remachined to extend the service life of each unit by 30 to 40 years.
Site work began in the fall of 2008 and is expected to be complete by 2016.
Value of Work: $151 million
Expected Completion Date: 2016
Service and Product Suppliers Involved: Toshiba International Corp.

Elizabeth Ingram is associate editor of Hydro Review.

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