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Snapshots of North American Rehabilitation

To illustrate the types of project rehabilitation occurring throughout North America, Hydro Review presents information about activity at 17 North American projects. The value of this work exceeds US$2.8 billion.

The 17 projects in this report illustrate the types of rehabilitation occurring at hydroelectric facilities throughout North America. Hydro Review is actively tracking rehab work at about 200 other projects. Projects of all sizes continue to be rehabilitated and modernized. The size of plants featured on the following pages ranges from 2 MW to 1,755 MW.

All types of owners are pursuing rehabilitation, including U.S.-owned public agencies, municipalities, non-federal public utilities, investor-owned utilities, Canadian provincially owned utilities, and independent power producers. Of the plants featured here, two-thirds are publicly owned and one-third is privately owned.

Most of the projects undergoing rehabilitation in North America are in the 30- to 70-year-old age range. The average age of the projects featured in this article is 58 years.

Reasons for rehab

A primary objective for owners when rehabilitating hydroelectric projects is to increase capacity or efficiency, or both. Four of the projects featured on the following pages cite significant increases in efficiency and/or capacity.

For instance, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power expects to see a capacity increase of more than 30 MW for each of seven units at its 1,200-MW Castaic pumped-storage project.

And, Grant County, Wash., Public Utility District reports an efficiency gain of about 3 percent and a capacity increase of about 15 percent by installing ten new advanced turbines at its 900-MW Wanapum project in Washington State.

Owners also are investing in rehabilitation to improve their projects’ environmental performance. Examples include:

– At the Bonneville Lock and Dam’s 518.6-MW Powerhouse 1 in Oregon, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is installing new turbine runners designed specifically to improve survival of fish passing through the units.

– At its 69-MW Box Canyon project, Pend Oreille County, Wash., Public Utility District is modifying four units to allow for underwater discharge to reduce total dissolved gas downstream. High levels of dissolved gas are potentially harmful to fish in the Pend Oreille River.

– Investor-owned utility Ameren UE is installing new turbines with improved aeration capability to enhance dissolved oxygen in the water downstream of its 226-MW Osage plant in Missouri to aid fish.

– Avista Corporation is replacing wicket gate operating system bearings with greaseless bearings at its 456-MW Noxon Rapids project in Idaho to eliminate the possibility of accidental release of oil into the Clark Fork River.

Other reasons given for pursuit of rehabilitation include extending the service life of a project, improving reliability, and solving operational problems.


Beauharnois

Owner: Hydro-Québec

Location: Québec, Canada

River: Saint-Lawrence

Capacity: 1,755 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1932

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Description of Work:
Rehabilitation is intended to extend the service life of Québec’s fifth largest power station. Work on the project began in 1994 and is scheduled to be complete in 2016. The work involves overhauling the 36 generating units, constructing new buildings, and rehabilitating the 120-kilovolt transmission lines.

Value of Work: C$1.6 billion (US$1.3 billion)

Expected Completion Date: 2016

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Alstom Hydro Canada Inc., Construction Interlag Inc., Hydro-Mécanique Inc., Toitures Couture et ass. Inc.

For Further Details:
www.hydroquebec.com/projects/index.html

“Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Beauharnois Generating Station,” Hydro Review, Volume 16, No. 7, December 1997.

Blenheim-Gilboa Pumped Storage Power Project

Owner: New York Power Authority

Location: New York

River: Schohaire Creek

Capacity: 1,040 MW

Original On-Line Date: July 1973, first power; December 1973, full production

Description of Work:
Project is undergoing a Life Extension and Modernization (LEM) program, which includes replacing the major generating equipment and rehabilitating and modernizing other systems.

Value of Work: US$135 million

Expected Completion Date: June 2010

Bonneville Lock and Dam, Powerhouse I

Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Location: Oregon

River: Columbia

Capacity: 518.6 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1937, first two units; 1943, entire powerhouse

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Description of Work:
Major rehabilitation project includes replacement of the transformers, lighting arrestors, high-voltage breakers, and disconnect switches. All ten turbines and generators are undergoing rehabilitation, including a generator rewind with stator replacement. All turbine runners are being replaced with fish-friendly minimum gap runners. The rehabilitation also includes repair of crane bridges and rails; replacement of the analog governors with digital governors; repair of the wicket gates; and replacement of the analog excitation system with solid-state digital exciters. As of September 2008, work was complete on all but two units, which are scheduled to be done by 2010.

Phase I of the rehab work began in 1992 and included replacement of the transformer, breaker, and disconnect switch. Phase II, the bulk of the work, began in 1994. For all ten replacement turbines, the contractor is installing minimum gap runners. Other work includes repairing the 18 existing governor oil pressure tanks; repairing the bridge crane and crane rails; replacing the governor pumps and motors; installing new digital governor controllers for all ten units; replacing the wicket gate farval greasing system with greaseless bushings; rewiring the generator terminal cabinets with modern components; replacing all electromechanical relays with digital multi-function relays; and installing a thrust bearing oil injection system on each unit. As a result of this work, all ten units will be uprated, for a new total capacity of 531 MW.

Value of Work: US$143 million

Expected Completion Date: 2010

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
McCormick, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation, Weld Mart

For Further Details:
“Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Bonneville Lock and Dam,” Hydro Review, Volume 19, No. 5, August 1999.

Box Canyon

Owner: Public Utility District No. 1 of Pend Oreille County

Location: Washington

River: Pend Oreille

Capacity: 69 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1956

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Description of Work:
Upgrade/rehabilitation includes replacing the four vertical turbine runners and generator stators, rewinding the generators, and restoring the units to “like-new” condition. The first new turbine is scheduled to be installed in 2009. As a result of the turbine upgrades and generator rewinds, capacity of the project will increase by 18 MW. Additional modifications will allow for underwater discharge to reduce total dissolved gas and to provide for remote automation capabilities in the future.

Associated upgrade work includes replacement of four generator step-up transformers and other upgrades to accommodate the new turbines and increased capacity.

Value of Work: US$82 million

Expected Completion Date: 2013

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Turbine Replacement: ABB Inc., American Governor Co., Enerfin, Kingsbury, Phoenix Power Controls (now North American Phoenix Energy Services), Purcell Paintings & Coatings, VA Tech Hydro

Generator Replacement: Garco Construction, IRS Environmental, Prater Electric Inc., Sherman Rock & Concrete, Siemens Power Transmission & Distribution Inc., Woodard Construction

Castaic

Owner: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power

Location: California

River: Pyramid and Elderberry lakes

Capacity: 1,200 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1978

Description of Work:
Castaic Modernization Project is a refurbishment and upgrade of this pumped-storage plant on the California State Aqueduct. The work is intended to improve plant reliability and efficiency and increase its capacity. The scope of work is to mechanically upgrade the main turbine-generator units, replace five of the seven main transformers, install new generator stators, and replace the hard-wired control system with a distributed control system (DCS).

This upgrade started in 2001 and is 65 percent complete. Work on four of the seven generating units and all five transformers has been completed. The upgrade of the fifth unit is scheduled to be complete in June 2009. Before the units were upgraded, the capacity of each was about 240 MW; afterwards, unit capacity is 271 MW. Total plant output is limited by the tunnel water intake from Pyramid Lake, but it is expected to increase from 1,176 MW to 1,257 MW.

Value of Work: US$165 million

Expected Completion Date: June 2012

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
MWH, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation, Wood Group Field Services DBA Thomason Mechanical Corporation (TMC)

Glen Canyon

Owner: Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior

Location: Arizona

River: Colorado

Capacity: 1,320 MW

Original On-Line Date: September 1964

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Description of Work:
Rehab is taking place in two parts. The first is to furnish, install, and test eight static excitation systems and associated equipment, one for each of the generators at the plant. The second is to replace eight 155,000-horsepower turbines, including a new stainless steel runner and wicket gates. This work is being done on one unit per year, beginning in January 2007. Two of the eight units are complete.

Value of Work: Static excitation, US$5.9 million; turbine replacement, US$33.5 million

Expected Completion Date: Static Excitation, fall 2009; Turbine replacement, spring 2015

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Alstom Hydro US Inc., Rosendin Electric, Turbine Control Service Associates

Holtwood

Owner: PPL Generation LLC

Location: Pennsylvania

River: Susquehanna

Capacity: 108 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1910

Description of Work:
Ten main units are being rehabilitated (six completed) and two house units are being replaced. Work includes: installation of new turbine runners; mechanical overhauls; modification of the turbine “wetted” parts for efficiency improvements; generator rewinding (three units); installation of new main transformers; modernization of plant electrical systems, including new switchgear; modernization of protection and control systems; replacement of governor hydraulic system; upgrade of service water systems; installation of inflatable rubber dams to replace flashboards; bridge crane upgrades; and building and dam concrete repairs.

Expected Completion Date: 2012

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
ABB Automation (Bailey), American Hydro, Bridgestone Industrial Products, Cianbro Corp., Eastern Gunite Co., GE Canada, Hydra-Power Systems Inc., Hydro Consulting and Maintenance Services, Inc., Kingsbury Inc., Kleinschmidt Associates, Magnetek, National Electric Coil, Power Equipment Maintenance, Inc., Structural Maintenance Systems Inc., Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation


Table 1: Projects Undergoing Rehabilitation
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Jocassee

Owner: Duke Energy

Location: South Carolina

River: Keowee

Capacity: 660 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1973

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Description of Work:
Work involves upgrading the turbines in Units 1 and 2 to improve efficiency and increase capacity. The rehabilitation scope is predominantly limited to the mechanical overhaul of the turbine mechanism components that would normally be reworked when upgrading a turbine.

Expected Completion Date: May 2011

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation

Lake Chelan

Owner: Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County

Location: Washington

River: Chelan

Capacity: 48 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1927

Description of Work:
Two units are being rehabilitated. Work includes: installation of new turbine runners, distributor, shaft, and generator stator; refurbished generator rotor poles; new governors and control system; and crane refurbishment. Rehabilitation of the headworks includes replacing the conductors for the automatic spillway gates, refurbishment of head gates, a new head gate lifting device, and new spillway stoplogs.

Value of Work: US$50.8 million

Expected Completion Date: June 2011

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Alstom Hydro US Inc., MWH Global, North American Phoenix Energy Services, VibroSystM

Max Starcke

Owner: Lower Colorado River Authority

Location: Texas

River: Lower Colorado

Capacity: 42.8 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1951

Description of Work:

Work, initiated to upgrade the generating capacity and extend the life of the units, consists of three major components. As a result of this work, plant capacity increased by 28 percent.

The turbines were upgraded with new stainless steel fixed blade runners with increased capacity. All the major turbine components were sent to Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation for inspection and repairs. Stationary components were rehabilitated at the site as needed.

The electrical systems were upgraded to meet the new turbine capacity. This included upgrading the generator stator and rotor; replacing the excitation equipment; installing a new generator step-up transformer, station service transformer, motor control system, and station service transformer; and replacing the generator cable bus.

Rehabilitation of the intake gates consisted of blasting, painting, and replacement of overstressed members, as well as members showing excessive corrosion damage.

As a result of this work, plant capacity increased by 28 percent.

Value of Work: US$24.8 million

Completion Date: August 2008

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:

Asero Enterprise, Basler, National Electric Coil, TCB, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation

For Further Details:
Ingram, Elizabeth, “Rehab Reports: A Snapshot of Activity,” Hydro Review, Volume 24, No. 8, January 2006, pages 10-24.

Mother Ann Lee

Owner: Lock 7 Hydro Partners LLC (50/50 partnership between Shaker Landing Hydro Associates Inc. and Salt River Electric Cooperative Corp.)

Location: Kentucky

River: Kentucky

Capacity: 2.04 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1927

Description of Work:
A major utility operated Mother Ann Lee (formerly known as Lock 7) from 1927 to 1999, when the last of the three units failed. In April 2004, the utility began the process to surrender the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license and tear down the plant. Lock 7 Hydro Partners bought the plant in December 2005 and began rehab work in March 2006.

Virtually every part of the plant must be overhauled or replaced. Unit 1 stopped operating in 1992, Unit 2 in 1994, and Unit 3 in 1999. The roof had leaked for many years, and water got into much of the equipment, including the controls and switchgear.

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Work on Unit 1 involves correcting a shaft misalignment problem that dates back to when the unit was installed in 1927. The shaft, which was damaged by excessive vibration during operation, is being machined in-place to correct the wear. This unit should be operating by January 2009. Unit 2 was placed in service in October 2007 but taken out of service in February 2008, when a problem developed with the generator. After the generator was repaired in March 2008, the unit was returned to service. Unit 3 was placed back into service in March 2007.

The plant controls, which were upgraded in 1980, are being modernized. The electromechanical protective relays have been replaced with all-in-one microprocessor-based protective relays for each of the generators and for the substation. The plant controls have been modernized with the addition of an Allen-Bradley programmable logic controller (PLC) that runs on Rockwell Automation supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software. Hundreds of sensors are being added that will allow the PLC to monitor many aspects of the generators, governors, and bearings. Continuous monitoring of water level and dissolved oxygen also will be included. When complete, the plant will be monitored and controlled from a remote location.

Value of Work: US$2.8 million

Expected Completion Date: January 2009

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Allen-Bradley Rockwell Automation, American Governor Company, Basler Electric, In-Place Machining Co., Kleinschmidt Associates, Monarch Electric Services

For Further Details:
www.kyhydropower.com

Noxon Rapids

Owner: Avista Utilities

Location: Montana

River: Clark Fork

Capacity: 456 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1960

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Description of Work: Major rehabilitation is under way, consisting of replacing the turbine runners in four units. Work includes major mechanical overhaul, refurbishing bearings, replacement of wicket gate operating system bearings with greaseless bearings, and replacement of stationary wearing rings. Work on Unit 1, the first unit undergoing an upgrade, will also include replacing the stator core and winding. The stay vanes are going to be modified to reduce losses and optimize efficiency of the turbine.

Value of Work: US$35 million

Expected Completion Date: March 2012

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:

Hydro Power Services, Ideal Machine, Iris Power Engineering, IRS Environmental, Kingsbury Bearings, Precision Machine & Supply, Purcell Painting, Toshiba International, VibroSystM, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation

For Further Details:
“Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Clark Fork River Project,” Hydro Review, Volume 19, No. 6, September 2000.

Osage

Owner: AmerenUE

Location: Missouri

River: Osage

Capacity: 226 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1931

Description of Work: Six of eight units are undergoing a capacity upgrade. Work on two units was completed in 2002, and two more were completed in spring 2008. Work on the last two units is scheduled to be complete in spring 2009. The wicket gates, bearings, coolers, and generators were rehabilitated at the same time as the turbine replacements. Electrical buses associated with these units were upgraded. Four of the six units upgraded include special turbines designed for efficiency improvements and for improved aeration capability to enhance dissolved oxygen (DO) in the lower river.

Both of the house generator units are scheduled for turbine, generator, controls, and electrical distribution buses replacement in 2010. Additionally, the plant’s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is being upgraded.

The 12 spill gates have been structurally strengthened, and lead paint abatement work has been performed. Headworks crane wheels, bearings, and electrical supply have been replaced or refurbished. Bridge crane electrical components and controls have been replaced. Trashrack covers were replaced, with plans for trashrack replacement. The dam bridge deck has been replaced.

Value of Work: US$50 million

Expected Completion Date: June 2010

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Aetna Painting, Alberici, American Hydro, APAC, Delong’s Steel Fabricators, J.H. Drew Corp., Mid-Western Concrete Cutting, National Electric Coil, PEM, Powel Group, Safeway Scaffolding, Schneider Electric, Stone Technologies, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation, Weaver Steel Fabricators

Otto Holden

Owner: Ontario Power Generation

Location: Ontario, Canada

River: Ottawa

Capacity: 240 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1952

Description of Work:
The major rehabilitation consists of three components.

Concrete alkali aggregate reactivity (AAR) mitigation (2000-2012): Phase 1 includes replacing concrete decks on the gravity sections of the dam, sluiceway decks, stoplog decks, sluiceway and tailrace piers, and transformer beams. Phase 2 is being refined and is expected to begin in 2014.

Generating unit work (1995-2008): This included major mechanical overhauls; modification of the stationary parts to make alignments easier due to AAR; generator rewinding; installation of new switchgear; refurbishing main output transformers; new service water piping and dewater and sump pumps; head gate rehabilitation; and modernization of the direct current system and protection and control systems.

Plant auxiliaries (1998-2012): This includes rehabilitation of the headworks, powerhouse, and tailrace cranes; replacement of the sluice gates; upgrading the alternating current station service; and replacement of the septic system.

Value of Work: C$80 million (US$66 million)

Expected Completion Date: November 2012 (Phase 1)

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
ABB Inc., Acres International, Aecon Construction, Alstom Power Canada Inc., COH Cranes, Comstock, Cutler-Hammer, Johnston Pumps, KGS Engineering, Kinectrics, KST Hydroelectric Engineers, Larco Cranes, Orbit 3 Electric Projects, RSW Inc., Unifin International, VibroSystM, Walter Construction, Westinghouse

Ozark

Owner: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Location: Arkansas

River: Arkansas

Capacity: 115 MW

Original On-Line Date: November 1972 (first unit), May 1974 (fifth unit)

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Description of Work: Major rehabilitation is under way, consisting of replacing five inclined axis turbines; upgrading to digital governors; rehabilitating the water passages and embedded components; and upgrading and rehabilitating the powerhouse auxiliary features, including the powerhouse cranes, water treatment, and drainage systems.

Value of Work: US$93 million

Expected Completion Date: 2013

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
Advanced Automation Technologies Inc., VA Tech Hydro USA

Rock Island, Powerhouse 1

Owner: Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County

Location: Washington

River: Columbia

Capacity: 213 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1933

Description of Work:
Modernization work on Units B1 to B4 (installed in 1933) includes stator replacement, rotor pole and rim key replacement, and turbine overhaul. Work on Units B5 to B10 includes a new generator, new turbine and wicket gates, draft tube modifications, new high pressure governor, and new exciter and controls.

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Rehab work on the powerhouse includes a total of four new cranes for the intake, draft tube, and powerhouse; eight new stoplogs; 18 refurbished head gates; refurbished trashracks (15 per unit); upgraded domestic, raw, and fire water systems; new oil handling system; upgraded utility air and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; new fire detection system; four new generator step-up transformers; new generator and transformer circuit breakers; new station service transformer and recon- figured plant electrical system; upgraded DC system; new draft tube dewatering system; concrete repair; new waterstops; crane rail alignments; safety improvements; and security enhancements.

Value of Work: US$200 million

Expected Completion Date: 2015

Service and Product Suppliers Involved:
ABS Consulting, Areva T&D, Brazil Quality Services, CE Power Solutions, Dix Corporation, DTA Consulting Engineers, Dunkin and Bush, Emagineered Solutions, Far West Iron Works, Gelco, H&H Engineering, Hyundai Heavy Industries, K&N Electric, Knight Construction, Konecranes, MRM Construction, MWH Global, NW Steel Fab, Okenite, Omega Morgan, Peer Technical, Pro-Cut, Technibus, Quality Resource Services, R.W. Beck, VanTran, VA TECH Hydro, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation, WESCO, Western States

St. Lawrence-Franklin D. Roosevelt Power Project

Owner: New York Power Authority

Location: New York

River: St. Lawrence

Capacity: 960 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1958

Description of Work: In 1998, the Life Extension and Modernization (LEM) program work began. The LEM includes replacement and/or renovation of the original major generating equipment in the powerhouse, with a scheduled completion date of 2013. St. Lawrence-FDR project personnel are responsible for most of the LEM work.

Value of Work: US$281 million

Expected Completion Date: 2013

For Further Details:
www.nypa.gov (click on “Facilities” under “Organization”)

“Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on St. Lawrence-Franklin D. Roosevelt Power Project,” Hydro Review, Volume 24, No. 2, April 2005.

Wanapum

Owner: Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County

Location: Washington

River: Columbia

Capacity: 900 MW

Original On-Line Date: 1963

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Description of Work: Turbines in all ten units are being replaced with advanced turbines. The new turbine has six smaller blades instead of the five on the existing Kaplan turbine. The new runner reduces the pressure-versus-time and velocity-versus-distance gradients while minimizing clearances between the runner and discharge ring and maximizing the volume of flow passage. The servomotor that moves the blades is located near the top of the turbine shaft instead of the hub. The new turbine has 32 wicket gates instead of 20, and every other gate is aligned with one of the 16 stay vanes. The new blade centerline is lower. The new turbine is expected to have an overall efficiency gain of about 3 percent and an overall capacity gain of 15 percent.

Value of Work: US$150 million

Expected Completion Date: 2012

For Further Details:
“Hydro Review Special Report: Spotlight on Wanapum and Priest Rapids,” Hydro Review, Volume 25, No. 2, April 2006.


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